Planning to head off childhood obesity

September is Be Kind to Writers and Editors Month, and as both writer and editor here at Birth Story, I intend to take advantage of this important event. I've been writing some long posts, but I'm hoping to keep them a bit shorter this month.Red typewriter

September is also Baby Safety Month, as well as National Preparedness Month, two interrelated observances, you could say, as planning ahead could help keep that baby safe.

Jane E. Brody's Personal Health column in the New York Times Science section today, for example, suggests that moms should adopt a healthy regimen, and maintain a lean frame, even before they get pregnant, if they want to help their children avoid becoming overweight themselves.

Brody's piece is a survey of the present understandings of how a mother's weight while pregnant affects the health of her fetus.

Her chief reference is a recent Lancet article that sought to tease apart the influence of genetics from the effects of more-than-adequate weight gain during pregnancy.

A separate study in Circulation "found that a woman’s weight before pregnancy was even more important than excessive weight gain during pregnancy in predicting a number of risks for the baby" that included childhood obesity," Brody writes.

"The new findings suggest that Americans are now caught in a vicious cycle of increasing fatness, with prospective mothers starting out fatter, gaining more weight during pregnancy and giving birth to babies who are destined to become overweight adults," Brody writes.

The latest recommendations from the Institute of Medicine, a subsidiary of the National Academy of Sciences, call for these weight gains during pregnancy:

¶28 to 40 pounds for thin women, with a B.M.I. of 18.5 or lower.

¶25 to 35 pounds for normal-weight women, with a body mass index of 18.6 to 24.9.

¶15 to 25 pounds for overweight women, with a body mass index of 25 to 29.9.

¶11 to 20 pounds for obese women, with a body mass index of 30 or higher.

Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

Not all blood is the same

In 1900, the Austrian chemist, botanist and medical researcher Karl Landsteiner realized that not all human blood is alike, that some people's blood contains substances that are toxic to other people's blood.

That began to solve the mystery of why some people who received blood transfusions were fine, while others became ill and often died.

Karl Landsteiner
Karl Landsteiner

Landsteiner subsequently discovered three of the four genetically determined blood groups or types, O, A and B. A couple of years later, Alfred von Decastello and Adriano Sturli, Landsteiner's colleagues in Vienna, identified a fourth blood group, AB. While about 30 blood types have been discovered, the original four essentially cover everyone.

In 1910, at the Heidelberg Institute for Experimental Cancer Research in Germany, Ludwig Hirszfeld and Emil von Dungern demonstrated that blood type is an inherited trait.

In the speech he made when he accepted the Nobel Prize in 1930 for his work, Landsteiner described the mystery blood presented, and how he and his fellow researchers unraveled its secrets.

In 1922, Landsteiner moved to the Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research in New York, where he discovered an extremely powerful blood antigen he called "the Rh factor."

Today, hospital personnel make sure they know a mother's blood type in case she needs a transfusion. She will also be tested for her Rh factor because it can pose a danger to her baby's well being.