Mixed report on breast-feeding

Three-fourths of American babies start life on the breast, but moms are giving up on breast-feeding sooner than officials would like to see.

Healthy People 2010, a national statement of health goals, sets the bar for breast-feeding at birth at 74 percent. Fully 75 percent of American moms are breast-feeding at birth, so the country is (barely) meeting that objective.

However, the goals would have half of mothers breast-feeding at six months of life and a quarter continuing on at a year. In practice, 43 percent are breast-feeding at six months and 22 percent at one year.

"We need to direct even more effort toward making sure mothers have the support they need in hospitals, workplaces and communities to continue breastfeeding beyond the first few days of life, so they can make it to those six- and 12-month marks," said William Dietz, M.D., Ph.D., director of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Ga.

The CDC issues an annual report card of how "key community settings" like hospitals and child-care centers are supporting breast-feeding, which research has demonstrated can improve an individual's lifetime health outlook.

While the overall news is good for moms' getting a start on breast-feeding at birth, the swing among the various states ranges from 90 percent in Utah to to 53 percent in Mississipi.

$1.5 billion from the Gates Foundation

The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation this month committed $1.5 billion over the next five years to support programs that will work to improve maternal and child health, family planning and nutrition in developing countries.

Bill and Melinda Gates

Melinda Gates announced the  plan on Monday at Women Deliver 2010, a gathering of world experts, advocates and policy makers in Washington D.C.

“In poor countries, pregnancy and childbirth often end in tragedy. Our goal must be to build a world where every birth brings joy and hope for the future,” Gates said.

Gates said that the money will be used to support local efforts toward a comprehensive approach to health that will include family planning, prenatal care, nutrition and improving the conditions under which women give birth.

“Every year, millions of newborns die within a matter of days or weeks, and hundreds of thousands of women die in childbirth,” said Gates. “The death toll is so huge, and has persisted for so long, it’s easy to think we’re powerless to do much about it. The truth is, we can prevent most of these deaths – and at a stunningly low cost – if we take action now.”

Gates said, “Most maternal and newborn deaths can be prevented with existing, low-cost solutions – such as basic prenatal care, or educating mothers about the importance of keeping babies warm,” said Gates. “Countries that have made women’s and children’s health a priority – and have invested in proven solutions – are achieving amazing results.”

Researchers at the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington say that maternal mortality has fallen more than 35 percent since 1980, from more than 500,000 maternal deaths to about 343,000 in 2008, according to a press release from the Gates foundation.

Deaths among children younger than 5 are also down dramatically. About 7.7 million children are expected to die this year, down from 11.9 million in 1990, and 16 million in 1970, the release stated.

The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, one of the world's largest philanthropic entities, is a "family foundation driven by the interests and passions of the Gates family," according to its stated principles. The foundation seeks to impact a number of major global issues, including health and education.

Bill Gates, founder of the Microsoft computer software giant, co-chairs the foundation with Melinda Gates and his father, William H. Gates Sr.

Photo by Kjetil Ree / www.commons.wikimedia.org

Have preterm births peaked?

Preterm births in the United States went up steadily from 1981 to 2006, but now they seem to be going back down, according to a new report from the National Center for Health Statistics in Hyattsville, Md.

This is the first two-year downturn in nearly three decades, the report states.

The peak year for preterm births was 2006, when they accounted for 12.8 percent of all births. The rate in 2008 was 12.3 percent.

A preterm birth is one that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation. Babies born before this point are more likely to have serious health problems compared with infants born later in pregnancy. Even babies just shy of 37 weeks are more likely to have "neurodevelopmental problems," or to die before they turn one year old, than are babies born at term, the report states.

Preterm rates appear to be falling among women of all age groups younger than 40, among all ethnic groups, in all types of deliveries and in most parts the country. Several states saw a flat rate of preterm births over the last two years, but only Hawaii experienced an increase. The decrease was similar for singleton and multiple births.

However, the report notes that "the U.S. preterm birth rate remains higher than in any year from 1981 to 2002, with large differences still evident by race and Hispanic origin. Further research is necessary to explain the factors behind the current downturn and to develop approaches to help ensure its continued decline."